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    [中水回用] 污泥膨脹的成因及其解決辦法!

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    1732 9
    娃娃 發表于 2019-3-27 16:56:49 | 只看該作者 |閱讀模式 打印 上一主題 下一主題
    污泥膨脹指污泥結構松散、體積增大、SV值增大,難于沉降分離影響出水水質的現象。活性污泥膨脹可分為:由于污泥中絲狀菌過量增殖引起的絲狀菌性污泥膨脹和無大量絲狀菌存在的非絲狀菌性污泥膨脹。通常多數情況下是絲狀菌性污泥膨脹。
    非絲狀菌性污泥膨脹
    非絲狀菌膨脹主要發生在廢水水溫較低而污泥負荷太高的時候,此時細菌吸附了大量有機物,來不及代謝,在胞外積聚大量高粘性的多糖物質,使得表面附著物大量增加,很難沉淀壓縮。而當氮嚴重缺乏時,也有可能產生膨脹現象。因為若缺氮,微生物不能充分利用碳源合成細胞物質,過量的碳源被轉換為多糖類胞外貯存物,這種貯存物是高密度親水型化合物,易形成結合水,從而影響污泥的沉降性能,產生高粘性的污泥膨脹。非絲狀菌污泥膨脹發生時其生化處理效果仍較高,出水也還比較清澈,鏡檢也看不到過量增殖的絲狀菌,在實際工作中我曾見到過非絲狀菌污泥膨脹,在第二天活性污泥恢復正常,非絲狀菌污泥膨脹發生情況較少,且危害并不十分嚴重。
    絲狀菌性污泥膨脹
    絲狀菌過度增殖引起的污泥膨脹在日常實際工作中較為常見,成因也十分復雜。影響絲狀菌污泥膨脹的因素有很多,但我們首先應該認識到的是活性污泥是一個混合培養系統,其中至少存在著30種可能引起污泥膨脹的絲狀菌。而絲狀菌在與活性菌膠團系統共生的關系中是不可缺少的一類重要微生物,它的存在對凈化污水起著很好的作用;它對保持污泥的絮體結構,保持生化處理的凈化效率,及在沉淀中起著對懸浮物的過濾作用等都有很重要的意義。
    當絲狀菌與菌膠團細菌平衡時是不會產生污泥膨脹,只有當絲狀菌生長超過菌膠團細菌時,才會出現污泥膨脹現象。
    對正常的活性污泥來說,它們兩者之間有一個適當的比例關系。如果絲狀菌生長繁殖過多,菌膠團的生長繁殖將受到抑制,過度增殖的絲狀菌伸出污泥表面之外,使得絮體松散,沉淀性能惡化,污泥體積膨脹,污泥沉降比和污泥體積指數都很高,這就是絲狀菌性污泥膨脹。
    伴隨著污泥膨脹出水氨氮隨之升高,污泥膨脹嚴重時,顯微鏡下可觀察到大量的絲狀菌伸出菌膠團表面。污泥膨脹不但發生率高,發生普遍,而且一旦發生難以控制,通常需要很長的時間來調整。
    成因:廢水水質
    在廢水生物處理中,廢水本身就是微生物的培養基。因此,廢水水質和微生物的生理活動關系十分密切。從上面提到的兩種污泥膨脹來看,無不與微生物的生理活動有關。即污泥膨脹或是和微生物增殖有關(如絲狀菌性污泥膨脹),或者是由于代謝產物積蓄之故(如非絲狀菌性污泥膨脹)。由此可見,廢水水質是污泥膨脹成因中極為重要的因素。
    關于廢水水質問題
    有機物
    對碳源的爭奪上,絲狀菌較菌膠團細菌更具有優勢。當水中碳源充足,菌膠團細菌和絲狀菌都能得到足夠的食物;而當水中的碳源較為缺乏時,由于絲狀菌有巨大的表面積,絲狀菌能更容易的爭奪到食物,絲狀菌膨脹往往發生在有機負荷偏低的活性污泥系統中。
    氮和磷營養物質
    活性污泥微生物為了進行正常的生長、繁殖,除了需要碳源外,還需氮、磷等營養物質。氮、磷和碳之間應有適當的比例,一般經驗提出的比例通常為:BOD5:N:P=100:5:1。當廢水中氮、磷含量不足時,亦易發生污泥膨脹。如在活性污泥中,絲狀菌的表面積相對其他微生物來說要大些易于攝取底物。故當氮、磷含量相對BOD5的比例不足時,由于具有上述特點絲狀菌比其他微生物較易利用底物,仍能正常生活進行生長繁殖。而在這種情況下,活性污泥中其他微生物,由于氮、磷得不到滿足以致逐漸衰退,于是絲狀菌大量增加,導致了絲狀菌性污泥膨脹的發生。
    另外,當廢水中氮、磷源不足時,相對而言就是碳源較多。在這種情況下如果糖類物質較多,代謝產物多糖類高黏性物質增加,使得活性污泥易于發生非絲狀菌性膨脹。
    溶解氧
    在曝氣池運行中,混合液的溶解氧濃度亦是個重要的問題,因為不同的微生物對溶解氧的要求亦是不同的。從以往的實踐經驗來看曝氣池中若溶解氧濃度太低是不利的,容易發生污泥膨脹的現象,雖然絲狀菌是好氧性細菌,但是它們和活性污泥中的其他好氧菌不同,在活性污泥的低溶解氧條件下大部分好氧菌幾乎不能繼續生長繁殖,但絲狀茵仍能適應這種環境并繼續生長繁殖,從而使得絲狀菌性污泥膨脹易于發生。而且即使將它們保持在相當長時間的厭氧狀態下,也不會失去活力,如一旦恢復好氧狀態,它們就會重新生長繁殖。據實際經驗一般應將溶解氧控制在不低于2 mg/L的水平,如2~4 mg/L,過高亦是沒有必要的。
    污泥膨脹解決辦法
    臨時應急主要方法是投加藥物增強污泥沉降性能或是直接殺死絲狀菌。投加鐵鹽鋁鹽等混凝劑可以直接提高污泥的壓密性保證沉淀出水。另外,投加一些化學藥劑如氯氣加在回流污泥中也可以達到消除污泥膨脹現象。
    采用這種方法一般能較快降低SVI值,但這些方法并沒有從根本上控制絲狀菌的繁殖,一旦停止加藥,污泥膨脹現象可以又會卷土重來。而且投藥有可能破壞生化系統的微生物生長環境,導致處理效果降低,所以這種辦法只能做為臨時應急時用。


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